Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-11-26 Origin: Site
Quinine is the main alkaloid in the bark of the Rubiaceae cinchona tree and its congeners. It needs to be stored in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Store below 40ºC.
What are the pharmacological effects of Quinine?
What is the use and dosage of Quinine?
What are the precautions for using Quinine?
Quinine is a Quinine derivative, which has a strong killing effect on the intra-erythrocyte schizonts of various malaria parasites. This chemical can combine with Plasmodium DNA to form a complex, inhibit DNA replication and RNA transcription, thereby inhibiting protozoal protein synthesis, but its effect is weaker than that of chloroquine. Quinine can also reduce the oxygen consumption of Plasmodium, inhibit the phosphorylase in Plasmodium and interfere with its sugar metabolism.
Quinine also causes malaria pigment agglutination, but it develops slowly and large clumps are rarely formed. In the blood, a certain concentration of this drug can cause the precocious rupture of the parasitized red blood cells, thereby preventing the maturation of the schizonts. This drug is ineffective for the infrared stage and cannot cure benign malaria. A long course of treatment can cure falciparum malaria, but it has no direct effect on the gametophyte of falciparum malaria, so the transmission cannot be interrupted. In addition, Quinine has an inhibitory effect on the myocardium, prolongs the refractory period, slows down conduction, and weakens its contractility. It has a weak excitatory effect on the pregnant uterus.
(1) Oral administration:
① Treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria: use Quinine sulfate, 300-600 mg each time, 3 times a day, for 7 days;
② Control of vivax malaria symptoms: this drug is no longer the first choice drug. If necessary, take Quinine bisulphate, 480 mg each time on the first day, and 360 mg each time from the second day, 3 times a day, for 7 days.
(2) Intravenous infusion:
Severe cases of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria (such as cerebral malaria): Quinine dihydrochloride can be added to 500 mL of sodium chloride injection at 5-10 mg/kg (the maximum amount is 500 mg), after 4 hours of dripping, Repeat 1 time after 12h. After the condition improved, it was changed to oral administration.
(1) Oral administration: treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria: Quinine sulfate is used for 10 days. Divide 2 to 3 times a day, the daily dose according to age is:
① 100-200 mg for those younger than 1 year;
② 200-300 mg for those aged 1-3;
③ 300-500 mg for those aged 4-6;
④ 500-500 mg for those aged 7-11 1000mg.
(2) Intravenous infusion: Severe cases of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria (such as cerebral malaria): the same as adults.
1. It is forbidden for pregnant women. Quinine has the effect of promoting labor and can pass through the placenta, causing fetal hearing damage and congenital defects of the central nervous system and limbs. Use with caution in lactating women.
2. It should be used with caution in patients with asthma, atrial fibrillation and other serious heart diseases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, myasthenia gravis, and optic neuritis.
3. Cardiomyopathy and pregnant women are prohibited.
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