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Phenacetin is a medicine with antipyretic and analgesic effects. Due to high toxicity of Phenacetin, Phenacetin is not used alone. Phenacetin is often combined with aspirin, caffeine, phenobarbital to make as compound preparations for the treatment of fever, headache, toothache, and neuralgia.
What are organic raw materials of Phenacetin?
What is the main function of Phenacetin?
What is the decomposition course of Phenacetin?
Phenacetin is obtained by acetylation of p-aminophenethyl ether. Heat the mixture of benzene, acetic anhydride and p-aminophenethyl ether on an oil bath to azeotrope for 4 hours. After the reaction is completed, the reactant is cooled to precipitate Phenacetin, which is filtered, washed with cold benzene, and dried. The yield of Phenacetin is the theoretical amount. 86% of it. It can also use acetic acid instead of benzene as a solvent. Heat 40% dilute acetic acid to boiling. Put in p-aminophenethyl ether. Distill off the water, then add glacial acetic acid when the temperature rises to 150℃. Reflux for 1 hour and continue to steam. Wait for the temperature to rise above 150℃, sample and determine free aminobenzene Diethyl ether. Add acetic anhydride according to the amount of residual amino phenyl ethyl ether, reflux reaction for 0.5h. Check the end point. Depressurize after passing, recover acetic acid until the amino content is below 0.046 and the acid content is below 0.2%. Then the reaction is hydraulically put into the hot refined mother liquor, Stir and lower the temperature to 40°C and filter to obtain crude Phenacetin. Add boiling water or refined mother liquor to the crude Phenacetin, then heat and stir to dissolve. Adjust the filtrate with acid to pH 4.5-4.7, add activated carbon and sodium thiosulfate to stir to decolorize. Cool the filtrate to crystallize and spin filter through dry air flow to get Phenacetin.
Phenacetin can also be obtained by the action of acetaminophen and sodium ethoxide. At first, add p-acetamidophenol to sodium ethoxide. Then slowly add ethyl iodide, heat to reflux for 1 hour, cooling and filtering. The resulting crude product is dissolved in ethanol. After filtering, the filtrate is diluted with hot water, then cooled, filtered, and dried to obtain Phenacetin. The output of Phenacetin is 80% of the theoretical amount.
Phenacetin is an acetanilide antipyretic and analgesic. Phenacetin has mild and lasting antipyretic and analgesic effect. The antipyretic effect of Phenacetin is similar to that of Aspirin, but the analgesic effect is weaker. Phenacetin has few anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and anti-platelet aggregation effects. Due to the greater toxicity of Phenacetin, as well as the replacement of paracetamol with similar effects and less toxicity, Phenacetin is no longer used alone. Phenacetin is only used in compound preparations with aspirin, aminopyrine, and barbiturates.
The antipyretic effect of Phenacetin is stronger than the analgesic effect. The potency of Phenacetin is equivalent to that of Aspirin. Phenacetin and its metabolite paracetamol have antipyretic effects. This is because when Phenacetin cannot be converted into paracetamol with enzyme inhibitors, Phenacetin can still show a significant antipyretic effect. Therefore, the antipyretic effect of Phenacetin that appears after the Phenacetin is given is not only produced by its active product paracetamol. The mild analgesic effect of Phenacetin can generally be maintained for 3-4 hours. The synergistic effect of Phenacetin combining with salicylic acid enhances the analgesic effect. Clinically, Phenacetin is mainly used for antipyretic and analgesic in small animals. Phenacetin is also one of the components of APC tablets.
Phenacetin is a prescription drug, which means the doctor must prescribe the medicine according to the condition. Patients must follow the doctor's order to take the medicine, including the usage, dosage, and time of administration. Do not self-administer drugs in accordance with the drug instructions without authorization.
Common drugs synthesized by Phenacetin on the market are cold tablets and pain-killers. Cold tablets are taken 1 to 2 tablets with three times a day for adults, while pain-killers are used orally with one tablet a time if necessary.
Phenacetin is easy to absorb when being took orally. The effect of Phenacetin will appear after 20 to 30 minutes and last for 5 to 6 hours. After absorption, most of Phenacetin is rapidly decomposed in the liver to produce acetaminophen, which exhibits antipyretic and analgesic effects. Afterwards, Phenacetin is mainly eliminated from the urine in the form of binding. While a small part of Phenacetin is deacetylated to produce p-aminophenethyl ether, which changes hemoglobin into methemoglobin, thus showing the cyanotic reaction of Phenacetin.
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