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Procaine Hydrochloride is a local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. Procaine Hydrochloride was first synthesized in 1905 by biochemist Dr Alfred Einhorn as a local anesthetic. Procaine Hydrochloride is still used by dentists, especially in the USA where it is known as Novocain. Procaine Hydrochloride is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. Despite reports of beneficial side-effects in patients given Procaine Hydrochloride, research into therapeutic uses did not begin until the 1920s.
l How does Procaine Hydrochloride work?
l What should be paid attention to when using Procaine Hydrochloride?
l What other drugs will affect Procaine Hydrochloride?
How does Procaine Hydrochloride work?
Procaine Hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of procaine. Procaine Hydrochloride is a benzoic acid derivative with local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic properties. Procaine Hydrochloride binds to and inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby inhibiting the ionic flux required for the initiation and conduction of impulses. In addition, Procaine Hydrochloride increases electrical excitation threshold, reducing rate of rise of action potential and slowing nerve impulse propagation, which causes loss of sensation.
Procaine Hydrochloride blocks nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. Procaine Hydrochloride acts on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, Procaine Hydrochloride can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. The action of Procaine Hydrochloride is completely reversible. Procaine Hydrochloride acts by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Procaine Hydrochloride has a slow onset but a short duration of action. Procaine Hydrochloride inhibits the 5-HT3 receptor and mediates inward current in the whole-cell patch clamp recording. Procaine Hydrochloride is a DNA-demethylating agent that produces a 40% reduction in 5-methylcytosine DNA content as determined by high-performance capillary electrophoresis or total DNA enzyme digestion.
What should be paid attention to when using Procaine Hydrochloride?
Since there will be decreased sensation of the area where Procaine Hydrochloride is injected, Procaine Hydrochloride should be used with caution to avoid injury to the area during and following treatment.
Diazepam, midazolam, or thiopental can save patients with convulsions. If you are allergic to Procaine Hydrochloride, you can use amide local anesthetics. Before using Procaine Hydrochloride, check for turbidity, discoloration and crystals. If there is, do not use. Procaine Hydrochloride cannot be diluted with glucose injection, but it can be diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The liquid medicine that has not been used up cannot be used again.
Procaine Hydrochloride has adverse reactions. If the adverse reactions are severe and require medical attention, the doctor will decide whether to continue use Procaine Hydrochloride according to the severity of the adverse reactions. Procaine Hydrochloride has an acute allergic reaction, such as respiratory depression, arrhythmia, severe nausea and vomiting, bradycardia, requiring immediate medical attention.
What other drugs will affect Procaine Hydrochloride?
Before using Procaine Hydrochloride, talk to your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines: warfarin (Coumadin); a monoamine oxidase inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), or tranylcypromine (Parnate); mecamylamine (Inversine); guanadrel (Hylorel) or guanethidine (Ismelin); a medicine to treat high blood pressure; or a medicine to improve muscle strength or tone for conditions such as myasthenia gravis.
You may not be able to use Procaine Hydrochloride, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring if you are taking any of the medicines listed above. Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with Procaine Hydrochloride. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking or using any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products.
Procaine Hydrochloride should be reduced when combined with other local anesthetics. Procaine Hydrochloride can weaken the efficacy of sulfa drugs so that they should not be used at the same time. Procaine Hydrochloride can enhance the effect of digitalis drugs, and can be used in combination to lead to its toxic reaction. Anticholinesterase drugs can interfere with the metabolism of Procaine Hydrochloride and increase toxicity. Procaine Hydrochloride can deepen the inhibitory effect of narcotic analgesics on breathing and cause hypotension.
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