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NADPH is reduced coenzymeⅡ, its scientific name is reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, it is a coenzyme, N means nicotinamide, A means adenine, D means dinucleotide, and P means dinucleotide, Phosphoric acid group. Let’s take a look at the working principles of NADPH’s biochemical enzymes and coenzymes.
Here is the content list:
l What is NADPH?
l how does Biochemical Enzymes and coenzymes of NADPH work？
l What are the generation and types of NADPH?
NADPH is a coenzyme called coenzyme Ⅱ. NADPH is usually used as a reducing agent for biosynthesis and cannot directly enter the respiratory chain to undergo oxidation. Only under the action of special enzymes, the H on NADPH is transferred to NAD+ and then enters the respiratory chain in the form of NADH.
NADPH is formed during the photoreaction stage of photosynthesis, enters the carbon reaction together with ATP, and participates in the fixation of CO2. The formation of NADPH is completed on the chloroplast thylakoid membrane.
It plays a role as a hydrogen transporter in many chemical reactions in organisms, which is of great significance. It is a phosphorylated derivative of the 2'-position of the ribose ring system connected to adenine in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and participates in a variety of anabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and nucleotides. The dark reaction can also provide fixed energy for carbon dioxide. These reactions require NADPH as a reducing agent and a donor of hydride ions, and NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+.
NADPH is obtained by NAD+ accepting the γ-phosphate group of ATP under the catalysis of the kinase. It is a coenzyme. A low-molecular-weight, non-protein organic compound participating in enzymatic reactions as dissociable acceptor or donor of chemical groups or electrons. (via NAD(P) )In-plant chloroplasts, the last step of the photosynthesis photoreaction electron chain uses NADP+ as reductive biochemical enzymes and is catalyzed by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductive biochemical enzymes to produce NADPH. The NADPH produced is then used for the assimilation of carbon dioxide in a dark reaction.
For animals, the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway is the main source of NADPH in cells, which can produce 60% of the required NADPH (also known as [H]).
The formation of [H] in photosynthesis
In the photoreaction stage of photosynthesis, the H+ and NADP+ (oxidized coenzyme II) produced during the photolysis of water undergo the following reaction under the action of the corresponding enzyme: NADP+ + H+ → NADPH.
The NADPH produced by the reaction is the [H] in photosynthesis. The two are the same substance. They are only given different opinions based on the different cognitive abilities of students at different stages of learning.
Formation and types of [H] in respiration
The first stage of respiration (the first stage of aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration is the same) is carried out under the action of cytoplasmic matrix-related enzymes, and a small amount of [H] is produced. The reaction formula (when glucose is used as the respiratory substrate) is: C6H12O6 (glucose) → 2 C3H4O3 (pyruvate) + 4 [H]+ 2 ATP.
The second stage of aerobic respiration is carried out under the action of the corresponding enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix. The reaction formula is: 2 C3H4O3 (pyruvate) + 6 H2O → 20 [H]+ 6 CO2+ 2 ATP.
Although [H] appears in the above two reaction formulas, it includes two different substances, namely NADH2 (reduced coenzyme Ⅰ) and FADH2 (reduced yellow enzyme).
According to the above analysis, [H] in photosynthesis is NADPH; [H] in respiration is not NADPH, but NADH2 and FADH2; [H] includes different types of reduced hydrogen produced in photosynthesis and respiration, Therefore, [H] cannot be simply regarded as equivalent to NADPH. Of course, although the type of [H] is different, its targets are also different (NADPH targets three-carbon compounds, generally written as C3, NADH2, and FADH2 targets O2), but they are all strong reducing substances, which can be viewed from this perspective. They are collectively referred to as [H].
As biochemical enzymes and coenzymes, NADPH plays a role as a hydrogen transporter in many chemical reactions in organisms, which is of great significance. Mulei (Wuhan) New Material Technology Co. Ltd., has been developing in the field of biochemistry for many years and conducted a large number of tests before leaving the factory to ensure quality. If you are going to purchase NADPH or learn more Health & Medical products, you can consider using our cost-effective products.
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